With only 30% of Indian population living in urban areas, the fundamental source of livelihood for most of the people living in villages is and always has been agriculture. Despite there being calls for improved agricultural implements in India, the country is yet to become self-reliant in producing sufficient food. Although there is considerable amount of resources and man-power, every year, tons of food-grains are brought in from overseas nations. The agriculture industry has remained backwards primarily because –
- Overpopulation has led to an over demand for lands for farming purposes.
- Ambiguity and unsurety regarding monsoons.
- Small and dispersed land holdings accessible for farming practices make modern equipment and implements difficult to introduce.
- There are numerous low rainfall regions which need proper irrigation facilities which are unavailable.
- Absence of canal irrigation leaves a majority of the farmers all across the country to depend solely on the rainy season. If the monsoons fail, Indian agriculture fails.
Modernization of agriculture too then becomes dependent on monsoons. Lack of proper agricultural implements in India, alongside poverty and ignorance of farmers has made matters worse. Here are some ways by which modernizing the agriculture can become easier.
Application of scientific methods
Amenities like qualitative seeds, organic pest control sprays, biochemical fertilizers, etc. should be in regular supply to the Indian farmers. Both central and state governments need to give top priority to applying scientific methods to agriculture. Flexible projects that serve numerous purposes have started in many states. These plans have made irrigation accommodations accessible to the farmers.
However, rainwater harvesting should be implemented in locations where canal or drip irrigation is not conceivable. The central government has commissioned and helped to build large industrial factory at Sindri (Bihar) to facilitate the production of chemical fertilizers. Problems like overuse of ineffective manure and other ineffective techniques of farming need to be done away with.
Most farmers around the country are not educated about utilizing chemical fertilizers and bio-pesticides. There is an urgent need for farmers to get educated on such important matters. Mass media outlets like television, newspaper and radio stations, the ones which reach the rural areas, should be used. The practice of agriculture should be recognized with collaborative roots. Even on administrative levels, corrupt people need to be educated about the severity of their misconduct and the importance of agriculture. Only meticulous and enthusiastic people need to be made accountable for executing administrational policies.
Smart use of land
It’s best if farmers learn how to use their land smartly. They should be taught about the importance of avoiding cultivation of the same crop on one land repetitively. Reusing the same piece of land for cultivating same crops year after year brings down the fertility level of the land. The productivity of the crop too diminishes with every harvest.
Can simply introducing agricultural implements in India transform present-day agriculture? Yes, that is a plausible step, along with the elimination of outdated tools and techniques. However, the real change needs to stem from people’s attitudes about the importance of farming and awareness regarding the severe effects neglecting it can have on the country.