Modern Indian agriculture has in many ways, been a victim of its own previous success – specifically during the Green Revolution. Despite the speculation in the industry being mostly about agricultural implements in India, the stark reality of the agriculture industry at present is that growth in productivity has been quiet in recent times, which has subsequently led to a noteworthy decline in the profits of farmers. Add to this the negative environmental ripples such as the reducing water table, release of greenhouse gases, and the adulteration of both surface and ground water. Stuck in a limbo of trusted yet aging traditional methods and modernization, here are the main factors which have influenced the modernization of agriculture-
India is a nation founded on a rural economy and it is principally slanted towards agriculture. Furthermore, over 82% of the farmers belong to the ‘small and marginal farmers’ group and these farmers do not have more than 2 hectares of land. Such minute holdings for a big majority of the farmers are not maintainable for a nation with over a billion mouths to feed and the incessant weakening in the average size of land holdings also creates a serious problem. This has been down to the speedy upsurge in the population on top of the number of operation holdings.
These small sized holdings are every so often over-populated, ensuing in masked unemployment and low output of labor. Growth of the agriculture sector can be encouraged in the country with vigorous support of the government in terms of modernization efforts to these small farmers.
Credit is the mainstay for all economic sectors. Being one of the key requirements of the farmers, credit deprivation is one of the major interferences in the modernization of agriculture. Agricultural implements in India like HYV seeds and the mechanism of using optimum measured amount of inputs has hence not been freely available. Like other industries, accessibility to credit for the agriculture industry too must be adequate, easy and opportune.
In spite of Rural Financial Institution’s (RFIs) extensive network, a big percentage of the rural farming industry continuously keeps getting neglected by the official banking sector of the country. Conversely, stubborn credit flows and a lending system based on security is extensive in the official Indian banking industry.
Infrastructure actually constitutes several types of agricultural implements in India including machinery, cold storage facilities, suitable supply of power, tractors, pump sets, proper road network, effective transportation, and so on. India has a gap of 3.28 million metric tons of cold-storage amenities for fruits and vegetables. The accessibility of cold storage units and their apt use can maximize profits of the farmers, but, the existence of these services is highly insufficient in the nation and there is also big inter-state inequality in terms of agricultural infrastructure budgets.
A recent study discovered that 67 million tons of agricultural items are wasted in the country every year. Improper storage is a huge misstep in the country’s farmers reaching maximum profits which is the only way towards modernization.
A large percentage of the farmers are left with tiny volume of output. Selling their output to middle-men at poor prices, the ones who should initiate modernization are rarely given their due credit which would enable them to do so, while the middlemen make it to major markets and get rewarding prices.
Indian farmers continue to face a multitude of problems in their quest to receive agricultural implements in India. Uncertainty of nature, along with the rising population and the apathy of concerned institutions can take its toll on the industry.